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Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

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    Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

    Starter en informasjons- og nyhetstråd om russiske radarsystemer og radarstasjoner. Alt fra åpne kilder som Wikipedia, nyhetsartikler og analyser. Både som følge av økt opprusting ifm konflikten i Ukraina, NATOs rakettskjold som russerne syntes er en svært dårlig ide, og russernes påfølgende modernisering og utrulling av ulike EW (eary warning) systemer samt pga den generelt økte spenningen mellom Vesten og Russland de siste par årene.

    Generell oversikt

    1. Forsvarsdepartementet, Aerospace Defence Forces
    2. Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning
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    Foto: Ministry of Defence

    1. Forsvarsdepartementet, Aerospace Defence Forces

    Russiske Forsvarsdepartementet har organisert overvåkning av russisk luftrom under enheten "Aerospace Defence Forces".

    Forsvarsdepartementet beskriver virksomheten som følger
    Link: hjemmeside

    The Aerospace Defence Forces (Russian abb. VKO) is principally new branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, designed and responsible for air and space defence. The Aerospace Defence Forces has a wide range of functions and the most important among them are the following ones:

    • Providing Command Authorities with highly accurate information on detection of BM launches and prevention of missile attacks;
    • Destruction of the BM warheads of the conditional enemy in case of crucial governmental facilities being attacked;
    • Defence of the Major Command control stations and governmental facilities, armed formations, the most important industrial and economic centres and other installations against enemy’s joint air- and space-based strike weapons (Russian abb. SVKN) in the zone of probable damage;
    • Monitoring space objects and identification of potential threats to the Russian Federation in space and from space, prevention of attacks as needed.
    • Carrying out spacecraft launches and placing into orbit, controlling satellite systems, including Integrated ones (intended to be used for both military and civilian purposes) in flight, and using separate ones towards providing the Russian Federation Armed Forces with the necessary information;
    • Maintaining both military and integrated satellite systems with launching installations and assets of control in the workable order, and a number of other tasks.


    The Aerospace Defence Forces VKO/BKO is the branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation responsible for air and missile defence, and the operation of Russian military satellites and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. Although it is officially translated as aerospace in English it covers both attacks from the air and from (outer)space, and some Russian writers translate it as "air and space" instead.

    The new service consists of the Air and Space Defence Command; and the Space Command. The structure is as follows:
    • Space Command It is led by Oleg Maydanovich, former head of the Titov Centre.

    In early March 2014, spokesman of the forces said the aerospace defences will include a space- and ground-based intelligence-gathering and missile early warning network, an air and space defence command, a VKO command-and-control structure, and a logistics support branch.

    The Aerospace Defence Forces are located across Russia and have bases in some Commonwealth of Independent States countries such as early warning radars in Azerbaijan (until December 2012), Kazakhstan and Belarus, and the Okno facility in Tajikistan.

    Facilities Early warning of missile attack:
    Voronezh radar at Lekhtusi, Armavir, Kaliningrad, Mileshevka, Yeniseysk, Barnaul
    Daryal radar at Pechora
    Volga radar at Hantsavichy
    Dnepr radar at Balkhash, Irkutsk and Olenegorsk
    Oko early warning satellites

    Missile defence:
    A-135 anti-ballistic missile system
    Don-2N radar

    Se også:
    Category:Russian and Soviet military radars

    2. Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning

    Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning
    Kilde: Wikipedia - se lenke for en rekke linker.

    The 820th Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning is the Russian early warning network against ballistic missile attack. It has headquarters in the village of Timonovo near Solnechnogorsk outside Moscow and is part of the Space Command of the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. The centre consists of a network of early warning radar stations which transmit their data to the control centre near Solnechnogorsk. Other information comes from the early warning Oko satellites and the Don-2N missile defence radar. Information from the centre could be used for a launch on warning nuclear missile attack or to engage the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

    The Main Centre
    The centre is the control centre for the radar network. Here signals from every station are received and, if necessary, a message can be sent to the presidential 'nuclear briefcase' for authorisation to use nuclear weapons. There is a communications centre which has a number of backup channels to communicate with each radar station. If a ballistic missile attack is discovered the duty commander reports this to the central command post of the General Staff. At the same time the duty engineer reports it to the commander of the Aerospace Defence Forces, for redundancy. Information comes from the radar network, early warning satellites and the space surveillance network SKKP. The centre also discovers and monitors space objects through the use of radar which are fed into the SKKP network.

    Warning network

    The Russian missile warning system originates in the Soviet Union and is often known by its Soviet initials SPRN (СПРН), roughly 'system for the prevention of rocket attack'. It started on 15 February 1971 as two Dnestr-M radars at Olenegorsk and Skrunda with a command post in Solnechnogorsk. It expanded by the addition of Dnestr-M radars in Mishelevka and Balkhash in 1973, a Dnepr radar in Sevastopol in 1975 and another in Mukachevo in 1977. The Daugava radar, a Daryal receiver, started operations in 1975 at Olenegorsk. In 1978 an upgraded warning system called Крокус (Krokus) was introduced.

    In 1982 the Oko early warning satellite system became operational. It was joined in 1984 by the first Daryal radar in Pechora and in 1985 by the Daryal in Gabala.

    The 1972 Anti-ballistic missile treaty requires that early warning radar stations are located on the periphery of national territory and face outwards. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 this resulted in many of the stations ending up in newly independent states. The radar station at Skrunda, now in Latvia, closed in 1998. Other stations now overseas were Sevastopol and Mukachevo (both in Ukraine), Balkhash (Kazakhstan) and Gabala (Azerbaijan).

    The Volga radar at Baranavichy in Belarus came online in 2003 and the two Ukrainian radars closed in 2009. In the mid-2000s Russia started the roll out of the next generation of early warning radar, the Voronezh. The first station in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg went on combat duty in 2012. Other stations in Kaliningrad and Armavir are in various stages of testing. The Russian military has expressed a desire to replace or replicate all overseas radars with domestic stations as overseas ones cannot be relied upon in times of tension and war. New stations are planned in locations such as Barnaul, Omsk, Orenburg and Yeniseysk.

    Organisational structure

    In 1998 SPRN became part of the missile and space defence organisation (RKO) together with SKKP and the anti-missile troops. In 2001 these services became part of the newly founded Space Troops, and were incorporated as the 3rd Independent Missile and Space Defense Army. The Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning was formed on 1 December 2009 and since December 2011 it has been part of the Space Command of the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces, together with facilities such as the 821st Main Space Intelligence Centre and 153rd Titov Main Space Testing Centre.


    As of January 2015, the land-based component of the early-warning system included the following radars:

    Radar station Radars Status
    Olenegorsk (RO-1) Dnepr/Daugava operational
    Voronezh-VP planned (2017)
    Pechora (RO-30) Daryal operational
    Vorkuta Voronezh-VP under construction
    Mishelevka (OS-1) Dnepr operational
    2xVoronezh-VP operational
    Lekhtusi Voronezh-M operational
    Armavir 2xVoronezh-DM operational
    Kaliningrad Voronezh-DM operational
    Barnaul Voronezh-DM initial operations
    Yeniseysk Voronezh-DM initial operations
    Orsk Voronezh-M under construction
    Balkhash, Kazakhstan (OS-2) Dnepr operational
    Baranovichi, Belarus Volga operational
    In addition to the dedicated early-warning radars, the Don-2N radar of the Moscow missile defense system and the Dunay-3U radar near Chekhov are also used for early-warning and space surveillance.
    You could download a Google Earth file with radar locations

    Early-warning satellites

    As of February 2015, Russia had no operational early-warning satellites. Two last satellites on the highly-elliptical orbit--Cosmos-2422 (HEO, launched 21 July 2006, NORAD catalog number 29260) and Cosmos-2446 (HEO, 2 December 2008, 33447) -- stopped operations in the fall of 2014. These were first-generation satellites of the 73D6 type that were built for the US-KS system (also known as Oko). This system was designed to detect launches of ballistic missiles from the U.S. territory and cannot detect missiles launched from sea or other regions. The last geostationary satellite of the US-KMO system, Cosmos-2479 (GEO, 30 March 2012, 38101), stopped operations in April 2014. The early-warning satellites were transmittin information in real time to the Western command centers at Serpukhov-15 (near Kurilovo, Kaluga oblast) and Eastern center near Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The information is processed there and transmitted to the command center in Solnechnogorsk.


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    Lekthusi Space Forces Center and training unit

    Voronezh radar

    Voronezh radars are the current generation of Russian early-warning radar, providing long distance monitoring of airspace against ballistic missile attack. The first radar, in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg, became operational in 2009. There is a plan to replace older radars with the Voronezh by 2020. The Voronezh radars are described as highly prefabricated meaning that they have a set up time of months rather than years and need fewer personnel than previous generations. They are also modular so that a radar can be brought into (partial) operation whilst being incomplete.

    Russia has used the launch of these new radars to raise its concerns about US missile defence in Europe. At the launch of the Kaliningrad radar in November 2011 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was quoted as saying "I expect that this step [the launch of the radar] will be seen by our partners as the first signal of our country's readiness to make an adequate response to the threats which the missile shield poses for our strategic nuclear forces."


    Daryal radar in Pechora, Komi Republic, Russia. Daryal radar. Transmitter building left, Receiver right.

    Daryal radar

    The Daryal-type radar is a Soviet bistatic early-warning radar. It consists of two separate large active phased-array antennas separated by around 500 metres to 1.5 kilometres. The transmitter array is 30x40 m and the receiver is 80x80 m in size. The system is a VHF system operating at a wavelength of 1.5 to 2 meters. Its initial transmit capacity was 50 MW with a target capacity of 350 MW.

    The prototype Daryal receiver is called a Daugava (5U83) and works with a Dnestr-M transmitter. It is half the size of the Daryal receivers but has the same equipment and computer systems. The original Daryal (5N79) was improved by revisions Daryal-U (90N6) and Daryal-UM. A Daryal-U had half the transmitters of a Daryal. The Volga radar (70M6) is a Daryal-like radar operating on a decimeter wavelength (UHF) rather than the meter wavelength (VHF) of the Daryal. It was originally planned that there would be a number of these to complement the Daryal. The only Volga built is the one at Baranavichy which originally started in 1982, stopped in the early 1990s, restarted in 1999 and became operational in 2003.


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    Volga radar at Hantsavichy

    Volga radar

    The station, classed as a 'Volga' type, is similar to a Daryal radar but operates on the UHF band rather than the VHF of the Daryal. Like the Daryal it has a separate transmitter and receiver stations which in the case of the Volga are 3 kilometre apart. The radar has an Active Electronically Scanned Array, a type of phased array. It continuously radiates such that it is receiving and transmitting at the same time. The array consists of spiral radiators which rotate in different directions in the receiver and transmitter. The transmitter array is 36 by 20 metres and the receiver array is 36 by 36 metres. Both arrays are surrounded by a ferrite frame which absorbs radio waves. The Volga has a range of around 2,000 kilometres.


    Dnestr radar

    Dnestr radar and Dnepr radar, both known by the NATO reporting name Hen House are the first generation of Soviet space surveillance and early warning radars. Six radars of this type were built around the periphery of the Soviet Union starting in the 1960s to provide ballistic missile warnings for attacks from different directions. They were the primary Soviet early warning radars for much of the later Cold War. In common with other Soviet and Russian early warning radars they are named after rivers, the Dnestr and the Dnepr. The Dnestr/Dnepr radars were intended to be replaced by the newer Daryal radars starting in the 1990s. Only two of the planned Daryal radars became operational, due to issues such as the dissolution of the Soviet Union. As of 2012, the Russian early warning network still consists of some radars of this vintage. It is likely that all the existing radars will be replaced by the third generation Voronezh radars by 2020.



    Oko (Russian: Око meaning Eye in old Russian) is a Russian (previously Soviet) missile defence early warning programme consisting of satellites in Molniya and geosynchronous orbits. Oko satellites are used to identify launches of ballistic missiles by detection of their engines' exhaust plume in infrared light, and complement other early warning facilities such as Voronezh, Daryal and Dnepr radars. The information provided by these sensors can be used for the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system which defends Moscow.


    A-135 anti-ballistic missile system


    TheRussian ABM system relies on a wide range of radar systems. Radarsassociated with the ABM system perform two main functions: targetdetection, and target engagement. The overwhelming number of associatedradar sites are of the latter variety; the operational interceptors arecurrently only in place around Moscow, and are all served by the singleDon-2N engagement radar descried previously. All of the radar systemsare interconnected via the command and control network, allowing theBMEW network to pass target data to the ABM system for engagement.Theoretically, an engagement would work as follows:

    1. The BMEW network would identify an inbound target.
    2. The BMEW site identifying the target passes track data tothe commandand control center which forwards target track data to the Don-2Nengagement radar.
    3. 51T6 interceptors are fired at the target, with theintention of prosecuting an exoatmospheric intercept.
    4. 53T6 interceptors are used to endoatmospherically engageany targets which may have slipped past the 51T6 salvo.

    Kilde: (svært omfangsrik tråd)

    Fra Wikipedia:
    A-135 consists of the Don-2N battle management radar and two types of ABM missiles. It gets its data from the wider Russian early warning system which is sent to the command centre which then forwards tracking data to the Don-2N radar.

    • The Don-2N radar (NATO: 'Pill Box') is a large battle-management phased-array radar with 360° coverage. Tests were undertaken at the prototype Don-2NP in Sary Shagan in 2007 to upgrade its software.
    • 68 launchers of short-range 53T6 (NATO: SH-08 'Gazelle') endoatmospheric interceptor missiles at five launch sites with 12 or 16 missiles each, though designed originally with nuclear warheads. Designed by NPO Novator, similar to US Sprint missile. These are tested roughly annually at the Sary Shagan test site.

    Foto: © Valeriy Melnikov - Don-2N

    Don-2N radar

    The Don-2N radar (NATO: Pill Box) is a large missile defence and early warning passive electronically scanned array radar outside Moscow, and a key part of the Russian A-135 anti-ballistic missile system designed for the defence of the capital against ballistic missiles. Located in the Pushkino district of Moscow it is a quadrangular truncated pyramid 33 metres tall with sides 130 metres long at the bottom, and 90 metres long at the top. Each of its four faces has an 18 metres diameter UHF band radar giving 360 degree coverage. The system is run by an Elbrus-2 supercomputer. Range 3700 km size of target "warheads ICBM".


    29B6 OTHR "Kontayner"
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    29B6 Over the Horizon Radar, nicknamed "Kontayner", is a Russian OTH radar that's very active in Europe. The radar uses 150 antenna masts with data transmission systems, transmitters and receivers, a power station and control buildings. It is able to detect both high altitude and low altitude aircraft and missiles at very long ranges. The first 29B6 radar installation is based at Kolkino radar station.

    29B6 commonly uses 50 sweeps/sec (max range 3000 km), but it has been seen with 25 sweeps/sec (max range 6000 km) and 100 sweeps/sec (max range 1500 km). 29B6 uses Frequency Modulation On Pulse (FMOP), unique among OTHR's, since they tend to use Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW).


    Video på Youtube
    December 3, 2013. TV Zvezda. Russia, Republic of Mordovia. New OTH-Radar 29B6 "Container".

    Fra Wikipedia om 29B6:

    Container (29B6) radar is the new generation of Russian over-the-horizon radar, providing long distance airspace monitoring and ballistic missile detection. The first radar, near Kovylkino, Mordovia, Russia, became operational in December 2013. Another Container radar is under construction in far east of Russia. Construction planned to be finished in 2018.


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    Attached Files
    Last edited by Feltposten; DTG 211747A Jun 15, .
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    Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

    Nebo-M radar. Source: VitalyKuzmin /

    Russia deploying next-gen Nebo-M radar complexes to counter NATO threat
    February 20, 2015

    Russia has begun deploying the next generation of Nebo-M anti-missile radar facility systems as part of a responsive measure to a threat stemming from NATO anti-ballistic missile systems in Eastern Europe.

    “The mobile multi-range programmable Nebo-M complex is capable of performing the tasks of providing information on small-sized aerodynamic and hypersonic targets in a difficult jamming background, as well as providing information for anti-missile weapon systems,” said colonel Aleksey Zolotuhin, a spokesman for the Russian Defense Ministry’s press service.

    The Sky-M Complex: FactFile
    RLM-M – radar using the VHF band on the BAZ-6909-015 chassis
    RLM-D – radar using the UHF band on the BAZ-6909-015 chassis
    RLM-S – radar using the S-band also on the BAZ-6909-015 chassis
    KU RLK – control cabin of the radar complex with built-in secondary radar module (KVRL) on the BAZ-6909-015 chassis.
    Les hele artikkelen her:
    Russia deploying next-gen Nebo-M radar complexes to counter NATO threat — RT News


    Russia Deploying Nebo-M Radar Complexes to Counter NATO Threat

    Russia Deploys New Radar Stations in Arctic

    Russia is deploying new radar stations on its islands in the Arctic Ocean, with Russian fighters aircraft expected to arrive there soon, the deputy commander of the Russian Aerospace Defense Forces said on Saturday.

    TVER (Sputnik) – Such moves are intended to defend Russia’s interests in the region, Maj. Gen. Kirill Makarov said.

    The head of the National Defense Management Center, Lt. Gen. Mikhail Mizintsev said in October that Russia was planning to build at least 13 airfields, an air-ground firing range and ten radar and vectoring posts in the Arctic region.

    Les hele artikkelen her:
    Russia Deploys New Radar Stations in Arctic / Sputnik International

    Relaterte artikler:

    China claims new passive radar system can detect stealth fighter jets

    Publisert 13. nov. 2014
    China has claimed its latest passive radar system, the DWL002, will make stealth fighter jets like the United States’ F-22 and Europe’s Neuron identifiable and therefore obsolete.

    Chinese and Russian Radars On Track To See Through U.S. Stealth

    A growing trend in Russian and Chinese radar could make U.S. stealth fighters easier to see and — more importantly — easier to target for potential adversaries, a former senior U.S. Navy official told USNI News. U.S. fighters — like the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lighting II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) — are protected by stealth technology optimized for higher frequency targeting radars but not for lower frequency radars.
    Until now a focus on higher frequencies have not been a problem because low frequency radars have traditionally been unable to generate “weapons quality tracks.”

    Les hele artikkelen her:
    Chinese and Russian Radars On Track To See Through U.S. Stealth - USNI News

    Aerospace Forces

    Posted on January 1, 2015 | 1 comment

    At some point, probably next summer, the Air Forces (VVS) will cease being one of Russia’s three armed services. The Aerospace Forces (VKS or ВКС) will take their place. The Aerospace Defense Troops (VVKO) will likewise disappear as a branch and get rolled into the new VKS. Russia will be left with three services and two branches (not three of each).

    “The goal of the changes being made is to increase the effectiveness of VVS [Air Forces] command and control, to improve the quality of the organization of everyday activity and planning for the combat employment of the troops.”

    Moral of the story: Reform, reorganization, and reshuffling never really end no matter the boss — Serdyukov, Shoygu, etc. VKS may be the answer for a time, but they’re very unlikely to be the last word.

    Les hele artikkelen her:


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      Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

      Russia plans to modernize and re-launch a Soviet-era radar station on the Crimean Peninsula

      Publisert 4. okt. 2014
      Officials say the station provides early warning of missile strikes. They say the radar station in the port city of Sevastopol will become completely operational in 20-16. Russia rented the facility from Ukraine for several years following the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Huge investments have been made into Crimea after it rejoined Russia in March this year. Moscow plans to raise its defense spending by over 21 percent in 20-15 with Crimea as one of its priorities.

      WORLDS MOST POWERFUL RADAR Can spy on United States from Eastern Europe (Ukraine)

      Publisert 22. jul. 2013
      The Russian Woodpecker was a notorious Soviet radio signal that could be sporadically heard on the shortwave radio bands worldwide between July 1976 and December 1989. It sounded like a sharp, repetitive tapping noise at 10 Hz,[1] giving rise to the "Woodpecker" name. The random frequency hops disrupted legitimate broadcast, amateur radio, commercial aviation communications, utility transmissions, and resulted in thousands of complaints by many countries worldwide. Because of its extremely high power output (over 10 MW in some cases), the signal became such a nuisance that some receivers such as amateur radios and televisions actually began including 'Woodpecker Blankers' in their design.

      The mysterious and unclaimed signal was a source for much speculation, giving rise to theories such as Soviet mind control and weather control. However, after careful study, many experts and amateur radio hobbyists long believed it to be that of an extremely powerful over-the-horizon radar (OTH) system. This theory was publicly confirmed after the fall of the Soviet Union, and is now known to be the Duga-3 (Russian: Дуга-3)[2] system, part of the Soviet ABM early-warning network. NATO military intelligence had photographed the system and given it the NATO reporting name Steel Yard.
      The Ukrainian-developed computer game S.T.A.L.K.E.R. has a plot focused on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the nuclear accident there. The game heavily features actual locations in the area, including the Duga-3 array. The array itself appears in STALKER: Clear Sky in the city of Limansk-13. While the 'Brain Scorcher' from STALKER: Shadow of Chernobyl was inspired by theories that Duga-3 was used for mind control, it does not take the form of the real array.
      Radar is an object detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. The object returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna which is usually located at the same site as the transmitter.

      Radar was secretly developed by several nations before and during World War II. The term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging.[1] The term radar has since entered English and other languages as the common noun radar, losing all capitalization.

      The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems; marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships; aircraft anticollision systems; ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems; meteorological precipitation monitoring; altimetry and flight control systems; guided missile target locating systems; and ground-penetrating radar for geological observations. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing and are capable of extracting useful information from very high noise levels.

      Ukraine (Listeni/juːˈkreɪn/ yew-krayn; Ukrainian: Україна, transliterated: Ukrayina, [ukrɑˈjinɑ]) is a country in Eastern Europe. Ukraine borders the Russian Federation to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the largest country entirely within Europe.[9][10][11]
      The United States of America (USA or U.S.A.), commonly referred to as the United States (US or U.S.) and America, is a federal republic[10][11] consisting of 50 states and a federal district. The 48 contiguous states and the federal district of Washington, D.C. are in central North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is the northwestern part of North America, west of Canada and east of Russia which is across the Bering Strait in Asia, and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-North Pacific. The country also has five populated and nine unpopulated territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean.
      Missile defense is a system, weapon, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception, and destruction of attacking missiles. Originally conceived as a defence against nuclear-armed Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), its application has broadened to include shorter-ranged non-nuclear tactical and theater missiles

      Behind Russia's space shield

      Publisert 28. jan. 2013
      If you think that you can hide from everyone if you fly into space, then you are wrong. Any object that tries to leave the surface of the planet will be immediately detected after takeoff by space surveillance systems. The information will then be transmitted to outer space control center, which is located next to the suburban town of Noginsk, in the Moscow region.
      It will not take specialists of this center much time to identify the object. In less than a day, it will be clear what kind of an object took off, where it flew and for what purpose.

      Alexey Logutenko, the commander of duty forces of the Principal Center for Space Control:
      "We are responsible for everything that is outside our planet's atmosphere. The principal goals and priorities are to ensure safety of manned space flights. There is also control of space activities of foreign states. Most often the question is not about what country has launched an object, but what kind of an object has been launched."

      Can the center do so much indeed? Can they indeed, in a few minutes, identify any unidentified object in near space? It'd be very interesting to know how these people work.

      Alexander Logvinenko, the Chief of the Principal Center for Space Control:
      "Defense systems and military units are located throughout the territory of the Russian Federation. Today, the center is able to perform its tasks timely, and as specified. In the case of dangers coming from space, we would be able to coordinate the activities of manned and unmanned spacecraft. Every day, the center analyzes the condition of space groups, the issues related to the distance between various space objects, and we also work with such phenomena as the de-orbiting of spacecraft. "


      • Trådstarter

        Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

        May 4, 2012 Russia_Foreign specialists visit early warning radar outside Moscow

        Publisert 30. des. 2012
        The Russian Defense Ministry invited foreign representatives to visit the Don-2N radar station on Friday, as part of an international missile defense conference being held in Moscow.

        The ministry said the purpose of the tour was to show Russia's willingness and capability for international missile defense cooperation.

        The radar detects space and ballistic missile rocket launches from the Plesetsk and Baikonur Cosmodromes, and ballistic missile submarines from the Barents Sea, Okhotsk Sea, and White Sea.

        The Don-2N radar is a key part of the Russian A-135 anti-ballistic missile system designed to defend the capital against ballistic missiles.


        • Trådstarter

          Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

          History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System

          Posted on March 15, 2002

          ABSTRACT: The article presents an overview of the history of development and the current status of the Soviet and Russian early-warning system, which was built to provide the Soviet strategic forces with information about a missile attack in an event of a nuclear conflict with the United States. Two main components of this system are considered--the network of early-warning radars and the space-based early-warning system, which includes satellites on highly-elliptical and geosynchronous orbits. The system appears to be capable of detecting a massive attack, but cannot be relied upon to detect individual missile launches.

          Les en relativt omfattende utredelse fra 2002 her:
          History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System - Pavel Podvig

          Voronezh early warning radar in Lekhtusi. Wikimedia Commons

          Four Long Range Russian Radar Installations Start Active Combat Duty

          By Max Metzger 1/15/15

          Four new Russian long-range radar stations have started active combat duty, the head of Russian Space Command has announced.
          The four ‘Voronezh’ early-warning radar installations have come online in the last year and are placed in Irkutsk and Yeniseysk in the east, Barnaul in the South and in the Russian exclave Kaliningrad, stationed between Poland and Lithuania, Major General Oleg Maidanovich said yesterday. The new installations join two other combat-active Voronezh sites; one outside of St. Petersburg and another in Krasnodar, between the Black and Caspian seas.

          Les hele artikkelen her:

          How Russia Will Counter Anti Ballistic Missile Defense By NATO

          By Diana ⋅ September 4, 2014

          How Russia Will Counter Anti Ballistic Missile Defense By NATO

          It is a serious concern for many nations to keep their security level up to the mark. Russia and China counter same concerns so as US and other NATO and Non NATO countries as well. India and Other Middle east countries including Israel face same issues in their security map.
          The growing concern is about anti missile system developed by NATO which they deploy against Russia and China to counter ICBM threats from these countries. So the power of these countries will be tilted and they will be vulnerable to more serious mishandling by NATO forces. Russia has serious concern about AMD facilities created near its regions in Poland while China has same about Japan’s set up of AMD.
          India and many other countries has similar issues about nullifying the strength of their deterrents using Anti Missile Shield which in another way can be used as a provocative or even attacking facility by creating one sided destruction inflicted on receiver using attackers’ own nuclear capacity.

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          How Russia Will Counter Anti Ballistic Missile Defense By NATO | INFONF.COM


          • Trådstarter

            Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

            Som tidligere omtalt her på Milforum:

            Barents Russia gets two new giant missile warning radars

            The Pechora radar station in the Komi Republic with the existing Daryal radar. Transmitter building left, Receiver right. (Photo: Photo: Ivan Z, via Commons - Wikipedia.)

            Will be built east of the secret town of Olenogorsk-1 on the Kola Peninsula and outside Pechora in the Komi republic.

            The new radars are of the fifth generation missile warning system, named Voronezh-M.
            The radars will detect incoming nuclear missiles from the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and the Arctic. From before, similar radars are in operation along Russia’s southern border, in the regions of Leningrad, Krasnodar, Kaliningrad and Irkutsk.

            Les hele artikkelen til Barents Observer her.


            • Trådstarter

              Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

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              Russia is building a new radar station close to NATO's borders

              Russia's Defense Ministry broadcasting channel, Zvezda-TV, reports that Moscow has plans to start building new early warning radar stations in Azerbijan and near the Arctic Circle.

              The radar stations are meant to provide long-distance monitoring of airspace.

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              Russia Says It Will Build New Military Radar In Azerbaijan

              Russia is planning to set up a radar installation in Azerbaijan in 2017, a television station operated by the Russian Ministry of Defense has reported. It would be Russia's first military installation in Azerbaijan after Baku refused to renew the lease for a previous radar system, at Gabala, in 2012.
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              Russian Builder of T-14 Armata claims it has radar and infrared invisibility

              Armour specialists from both Russia and the United States are sceptical of recent claims made by the enterprise that produces Russia's new T-14 Armata MBT that the tank is essentially "invisible" to radar. The claim was made by the director of the Nizhi-Tagil-based UralVagonZavod (UVZ) plant, Vyacheslav Khalitov, on Ekho Moskvy radio on 3 July. "We essentially made the invisible tank," said Khalitov. He also elaborated on the tank's internal arrangement, stating that key "emitters" that normally make other tanks vulnerable to current-generation anti-armour weapons are fitted as far as possible into the interior of the Armata to reduce its infrared (IR) signature.

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              • Trådstarter

                Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

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                Russian Anti-Missile Warning System Protects on Multiple Tiers

                The Russian anti-missile warning system has the primary task to detect a missile attack and pass on the data to the anti-missile defense system.

                Based on the system of missile warning the information about the extent and source of attack provides the defenses with needed calculation to respond.

                The anti-missile warning system consists of a ground-based radar with a detection range of 6000 km and a group of orbiting satellites that can detect the launch of intercontinental missiles from anywhere in the world.

                The early-warning system allows you to define a class of missiles launched and assess the direction of its flight, Colonel Viktor Tymoshenko said during an interview with radio RSN.

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                US Army Held Missile Defense War Games to Subvert ‘Russian Jamming’

                In an effort shore up its missile defense capabilities, the US military has conducted a massive electronic warfare exercise. The concern? Russian radar jamming technology.

                Last spring, the US Army conducted a highly classified exercise deep in the New Mexico desert. Held at White Sands Missile Range, the electronic warfare drills were designed to find weaknesses in the Pentagon’s missile defense capabilities.

                Les hele artikkelen her.


                • #9
                  Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

                  Kom over denne saken (og denne) her forleden dag om Krashua-4 som er en videreutvikling av Krashua-2. Enn så langt så er det relativt begrenset hva som jeg har klart å grave frem av om dette EW systemet, ser forøvrig at det heller ikke er omtalt her på forumet heller.

                  Systemet har i følge KRET som er konstruktøren bak systemet følgende kapasiteter:
                  Mobile electronic warfare systems "Krasuha-4" suppress spy satellites, ground-based radars and airborne systems AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System).
                  Complex "Krasuha-4" fully covers an object from radar detection at 150-300 kilometers, and may also cause damage to enemy radar electronic warfare and communications systems. The complex functioning is based on creating powerful jamming at the fundamental radar frequencies and other radio-emitting sources.
                  Dersom dette systemet er operasjonelt og så effektivt som konstruktøren hevder så vil dette være en formidabel EK-kapasitet som vil kunne gi russiske styrker muligheten til å operere i et signalmessig vakum som en motstander ikke klarer å overvåke, og dermed påføre en motstander store operasjonelle utfordringer.

                  Et sentralt spørsmål vil være hvilke implikasjoner bruken av dette systemet har på andre russiske EK-systemer.

                  Noen som har sett mer på dette systemet?
                  Det er faan meg på tide å BITRE... Bitre, bitre. bitre


                  • #10
                    Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

                    Grei oppdatering fra Barents Observer om tilstanden på oppgraderingen av russiske kontroll- og varslingssystemer i Arktis:
                    “Tell me what you know. Tell me what you don’t know. Tell me what you think. Always distinguish which is which.” - Colin Powell


                    • #11
                      Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

                      Hvor slutter sannheten, og når overtar propagandaen?

                      «The Krasukha-4 is reportedly able to jam satellite communications, GPS signals and drone communication. When subjected to the jamming, the enemy finds himself blind, deaf and without speech, military representatives say to the newspaper.»


                      Sent fra min SM-A520F via Tapatalk
                      Odd objects attract fire. You are odd.


                      • #12
                        Sv: Russiske radarsystemer og stasjoner

                        Opprinnelig skrevet av cwo-kp4 Vis post
                        Kom over denne saken (og denne) her forleden dag om Krashua-4 som er en videreutvikling av Krashua-2. Enn så langt så er det relativt begrenset hva som jeg har klart å grave frem av om dette EW systemet, ser forøvrig at det heller ikke er omtalt her på forumet heller.

                        Systemet har i følge KRET som er konstruktøren bak systemet følgende kapasiteter:

                        Dersom dette systemet er operasjonelt og så effektivt som konstruktøren hevder så vil dette være en formidabel EK-kapasitet som vil kunne gi russiske styrker muligheten til å operere i et signalmessig vakum som en motstander ikke klarer å overvåke, og dermed påføre en motstander store operasjonelle utfordringer.

                        Et sentralt spørsmål vil være hvilke implikasjoner bruken av dette systemet har på andre russiske EK-systemer.

                        Noen som har sett mer på dette systemet?
                        Opprinnelig skrevet av Znuddel Vis post
                        Hvor slutter sannheten, og når overtar propagandaen?

                        «The Krasukha-4 is reportedly able to jam satellite communications, GPS signals and drone communication. When subjected to the jamming, the enemy finds himself blind, deaf and without speech, military representatives say to the newspaper.»


                        Sent fra min SM-A520F via Tapatalk
                        Se s. 51-54 her for en edruelig vurdering.

                        Krasukha-4S er altså først og fremst en radarjammer, innrettet mot målsøkeradarer og overåkingsradarer på fly og satellitter, hvor påstandene om at den er egnet til å jamme kommunikasjon og GPS-signaler fra er litt uklart. Murmansk-BN er en kortbølge- (kommunikasjons-)jammer, og russerne har også GPS-jammere, (Zhitel og Pole, kanskje fler), så det virker som om forskjellige systemer sauses litt sammen i artikkelen til Barents Observer. Nå jobber disse systemene selvfølgelig sammen, så de samlede kapasitetene til Nordflåten på EK-siden er nok ikke å spøke med.
                        “Tell me what you know. Tell me what you don’t know. Tell me what you think. Always distinguish which is which.” - Colin Powell


                        • #13

                          E-Tjenesten melder forstyrrelser i radio og radarutstyr i Finnmark som følge av russisk aktivitet. Ikke så mye info foreløpig.
                          Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam


                          • #14
                            To dager tidligere meldte det russiske forsvarsdepartementet at ulike enheter fra det russiske luftforsvaret og Nordflåtens luftforsvarsstyrker skulle teste radioteknisk utstyr på den nye fregatten Admiral Kasatonov i Barentshavet.
                            Kommer neppe som julekvelden på kjerringa med jammingen som tidvis har pågått i nord siden september 2017. Spørs om man kan tolke dette som at Russland har varslet planlagt jamming som kan ramme visse viktige frekvenser i angitt område og tidsrom? Har skjønt det sånn at stater er pliktige til å gjøre det iht. International Telecommunication Union. Erfaringene med GPS-jamming i luftrommet over Finnmark og muligens lengre vest (pluss Finland) i etterkant av hendelsene som startet i 2017 (som ble varslet) tyder på at russerne ikke alltid mener det er så nøye. Og uansett har det vært en viktig vekker mht. økende digital avhengighet og behovet for konvensjonelle reserver.