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  1. #1
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    Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.


    KASHGAR/TASHKORGAN (Aftenposten): Den nye silkeveien fra Kina til Europa skal bestå av høyhastighetsjernbane, motorveier, energiforsyning og fiberoptiske nettverk.
    Foto: Aftenposten

    Silk Road Economic Belt
    - Silkeveien

    Lager egen #fokustråd om dette ekstreme prosjektet kineserne er i full gang med. Et prosjekt som allerede påvirker og endrer en rekke nasjoners strategier og utenrikspolitikk. Et prosjekt som vil kunne gi oss mange svar på fremtidige hendelser og disponeringer, særlig militært disponeringer, sågar allerede i nåtid. Kina knytter altså til seg Afrika og Europa til Asia med store infrastruktur- og energiprosjekter. Men noen hindre har de på veien, som litt småkriger i Midt-Østen og et par tre stater som kanskje må kjøpes til enighet for at de ulike rutene i Silkeveien skal bli en realitet. Og ikke minst spennende hvordan stormakter som India og Pakistan vil forholde seg til Silkeveien sett i forhold til relasjon til USA.

    Omfanget av prosjektet, både i kroner og øre som i potensielle endringer i en rekke fattige og hardt utsatte land hva gjelder krig og konflikt langs de ulike rutene kineserne planlegger, er så stort og vil utvilsomt utgjøre en stor strategisk nøtt for stormaktene. Særlig mener mange at USA fra administrasjonens strategers ståsted, anser prosjektet som en stor trussel mot USAs fremtidige vekst og stormaktstatus. Jeg tror denne strategiske "nøtten" kineserne har hivd på bordet er langt større for Obama-administrasjonen enn hva vi får inntrykk av i media, og kan, hvis de lykkes, endre hele det geopolitiske bildet dramatisk, til kinesernes fordel.

    Sputnik Media (red.mrk: Russisk statsmediakanal) skrev en artikkel om hva de mente Silkeveien betyr for deres bestekompis, USA i april i år:

    Den største utfordringen for den asiatiske delen av prosjektet som går til lands er å trygge geopolitiske forhold for å gjennomføre det. Det pågår jo en krig i Irak og Syria, Afghanistan er eksplosjonsfarlig. Men selve fremming av Den nye silkeveien blir en viktig måte å tvinge til freden på.

    Over 60 land har allerede vist sin interesse for prosjektet. Er USA interessert? Washington snakker om at Den nye silkeveien er nyttig, men i virkeligheten er det klar hva dens gjennomføring vil føre til – nemlig nedgangstid for USA. Derfor vil det hisse til krigen i den islamske verden. Men dette kan ikke avverge handels-og politiske forbindelser mellom Kina og Europa til lands – fordi de er forbundet med Russland.
    Les mer: http://no.sputniknews.com/norwegian....lkeveien-1173/
    Prosjektet "Silkeruten" har vært i nyhetsbildene en god stund, og ble lansert i september 2013 av av president Xi Jinping under et besøk til Kazakhstan (merk: land vi på Milforum begynte å følge ekstra med på i april). Russlands inngrep i Ukraina (link: NRK tidslinje av konflikten) i 2014, og med de umiddelbare alvorlige sanksjonene som kom fra et ganske så samlet Vesten, har nok endret Russlands først antatte rolle i kinesernes prosjekt noe men Russland er uten tvil en sentral aktør, både med Silkeveiens planlagte landruter som sjøkorridorene.


    Kilde


    For når det gjelder sjøkorridorene, så innebærer prosjektet store endringer i seilingsmønstere for handelsskip mellom Europa og Asia, hvor det i nord, med issmelting og påfølgende åpning av seilingskorridorer langs/forbi Russlands kyst (NSR - North Sea Route - opp mot 24 % avstandsbesparelse) vil endre seilingsrutene og seilingstid dramatisk. Her spiller Russlands en vesentlig rolle strategisk overfor kineserne. Som implikasjoner for Pakistan/India/Iran/Midt-Østen etc vs sjøveien og vs forholdet med amerikanerne.

    Silkeveien betyr kort og godt enorme økonomiske muligheter for en rekke land. Anerkjente Politico skrev i mai om Kinas mulige reddende arm inn i det kaotiske Hellas. Ungarn er første land ut i Europa til å finne frem spaden og delta i prosjektet:

    Hungary hopes to closely cooperate with China and push on with the Hungarian-Serbia railway and other major construction projects, Hungary's President Janos Ader was quoted as saying by the Chinese foreign ministry.
    China is helping fund and build a railway connecting Hungary and Serbia.
    Det vi følger tett fremover er hva kinesernes investeringsselskap The Silk Road Fund Co. Ltd. foretar seg enten direkte eller via andre kinesiske selskaper, i det antatte aksjonsområdet for Silkeveien. Dette er dette selskapet (et investeringsselskap) som finansierer kinesernes drøm om Silkeruten. Et av mange eksempler på veier haren hopper:


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    Russernes Yamal-project

    Russiske Jamal-prosjektet
    Investeringer av interesse er som for eksempel den selskapet gjorde sist torsdag hvor det kjøpte 9,9 % av det store russiske prosjektet Yamal fra Russlands nest største LNG-enerigselskap Novatek (her er Novateks pressemelding om transaksjonen), noe vi også rapporterte om her på Milforum. Jeg finner det litt interessant at NRKs journalist ikke nevner Kina og Silkeveien i sin nyhetssak om at "Røkke lukter på Murmansk" hos Novatek, som @znuddel først meldte om i Energitråden. Det ligger potensielle svært store kontrakter å vinne i fremtiden for norsk industri som følge av dette konglomeratet av prosjekter både i selve Jamal-prosjektet som nettopp i det større bildet med #Silkeveien. Behovet for teknologi og faktiske leveranser innen energisektoren hvor vi har flere norske ingeniør/teknologi/energiselskaper som kan levere unik kompetanse og produkter. Enten ikke nevnt som følge av uvitenhet fra journalisten sin side om Silkeveien og proporsjonene og strukturen i prosjektet, eller antatt uvesentlig for ham og andre bortsett fra meg? Det politiske storspillet Vesten mot Russland etter Ukrainakrigen og dels mot Kina hovedsakelig ledet an av amerikanerne, vs økonomiske sanksjoner (flere mener USA driver målrettet operasjon for å fremtvinge regimeskifte i Russland igjennom knele landet økonomisk med kunstig lave oljepriser, som også rammer allierte land som i Norge og de ekstreme konsekvenser vi nå ser i oljesektor m.m, kilde, kilde, kilde kilde) og boikotter, synes å måtte vike litt når norske bedrifter likevel blir tildelt store kontrakter i disse megaprosjektene. Her besitter norsk teknologisektor etterspurt erfaring og kunnskap, og det er ikke uten grunn at spionasjenyhetene rundt olje/gass/teknologisektoren i Norge har vært mange de senere årene. Interessant å merke seg knytningene Kina gjør til Russland gjennom at det som her at Silkeveien blir partner i Jamal-prosjektet til russerne (se forøvrig Jamalprosjektets egen hjemmeside).

    Posisjoneringen er i full gang på alle kanter, og det blir uhyre spennende å følge hvem som leker med hvem og hvor store leker man hiver inn i lekegrinden i prosjektet. Og ikke minst USA sin posisjonering i forhold til Silkeveien og hvordan landet reagerer i Midt-Østen, Asia og Stillehavet fremover. Ønsker du å lese mer om Silkeruten vil Google gi deg utallige valgmuligheter...

    Med dette som kort bakteppe, kjører vi igang tråden om #Silkeruten. Veien blir til mens vi går!



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  2. Peshmerganor - Min kamp mot Kalifatet.



  3. #2
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Noen nyhetsklipp om Silkeveien.




    Her er Kina i gang med å bygge den nye silkeveien til Europa


    KASHGAR/TASHKORGAN (Aftenposten): Den nye silkeveien fra Kina til Europa skal bestå av høyhastighetsjernbane, motorveier, energiforsyning og fiberoptiske nettverk.

    Kinas mektige president vil gjenopplive de historiske silkeveiene ved å bygge enorme korridorer for reise, handel og business fra Beijing til Rotterdam. I Xinjiang-provinsen er utbyggingen allerede i gang.

    Ideen om Den nye silkeveien ble for første gang lansert av president Xi Jinping i september 2013, og har siden vokst i omfang. Nå omtales visjonen som et av de største økonomiske utviklingsprosjektene i historien.Silkeveiprosjektene tar sikte på å skape forbindelser mellom 65 land og 4,4 milliarder mennesker.
    – Dette er Xis store prestisjeprosjekt hvor han prøver å oppfylle en rekke mål både i og utenfor Kina, sier Bjørnar Sverdrup-Thygeson, forsker ved Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt (NUPI).

    Innenrikspolitisk blir det viktigste å løfte den fattige, vestlige delen av Kina ved å knytte den tettere sammen med de store vekstregionene langs kysten i øst.

    Samtidig kan prosjektene bidra til å trygge Kinas forsyninger av energi ved at landet øker antallet importkanaler.
    I tillegg skal den nye silkeveien øke handelen med landene i Sentral-Asia og gjøre veien til Europa og Afrika kortere og enklere.

    Flere håper også at de nye prosjektene vil gi ny fart til Kinas økonomiske vekst. Etter å ha vokst med over ti prosent årlig fra 1990 til 2010, har den kinesiske økonomien redusert tempoet betydelig de siste årene. I år er veksten anslått til å ende på 6,8 prosent, ifølge IMF.

    Les hele den interessante artikkelen i Aftenposten her.


    China Sees Itself at Center of New Asian Order

    Beijing Builds Roads, Pipelines, Railways and Ports to Bind Itself to Region

    China’s plan is to transform the sleepy frontier crossing into an international railway, energy and logistics hub for a “Silk Road Economic Belt” unveiled by President Xi Jinping last year to establish new trade and transport links between China, Central Asia and Europe.

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    Although Mr. Xi didn’t mention the U.S. by name, many Chinese and Western analysts agree his appeal sent a message to Washington that it should accept a lesser role in the region, which, according to the Asian Development Bank, requires infrastructure investment of $8 trillion by 2020.

    Les den relativt omfattende artikkelen fra november 2014 her.



    DN.no:
    Kinas Silkevei utfordrer USAs dominans i Asia

    – Silkeveien er ikke lenger bare et konsept fra historiebøkene, men en historie om moderne logistikk og kinesisk-europeisk samarbeid, sier Kinas utenriksminister Yang Jiechi.

    Det nye økonomiske silkeveibeltet fra Kina over Sentral-Asia og Russland til Europa, og den nye maritime silkeveien gjennom Malakkastredet til India, Midtøsten og Øst-Afrika er blitt bærebjelken i Kinas økonomiske diplomati.
    Beltet og veien, som kinesiske diplomater kaller det, er i fokus på APEC-toppmøtet i Beijing denne uka og er ifølge kinesiske planer hovedelementet i Kinas økende rolle som stormakt i det 21. århundre.

    Kinas har satt av 40 milliarder dollar til et silkeveifond for infrastruktur, ressurser og økonomisk samarbeid i Asia, og kinesiske diplomater promoterer en ny asiatisk bank for investeringer i infrastruktur som skal bidra til bygging av havner, veier, kraftprosjekter og annen infrastruktur.

    Les resten av artikkelen her.
    Relaterte artikler på DN.no.



    China's New Silk Road Strategy
    Fra mai 2014




    In the current issue of Middle East Report, we write about the strategic logic of China’s increasing investment in teaching Middle Eastern languages, particularly Arabic, Persian and Turkish. A key goal of the push for Middle Eastern language competency is to help rebuild the Silk Road that China stood astride in centuries past.

    But, of course, these grand plans do not exist in a geopolitical vacuum. The progress of Chinese-Iranian ties is hindered somewhat by China’s continued desire not to offend Washington, at least not too grievously.
    The ancient Silk Road bridged China and the Middle East via Central Asia and facilitated rich commercial, political and cultural exchange. After a long interlude, the Silk Road is back. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the formation of the Central Asian republics in the 1990s provided China with an opportunity to restore this channel of communication. In 1990, the People’s Republic commenced construction of the Eurasian Land Bridge, a highway and high-speed rail line that traverses eastern Russia and ends in Rotterdam. A second such land bridge connects Rotterdam to the port of Lianyungang in the northeastern Jiangsu province. And still a third is planned to go through Turkey, with a branch ending in Egypt.

    Les resten av artikkelen her.


    Afghanistan seeks to realize dream of 'New Silk Road'

    Afghanistan's government reiterated its call to regional neighbors to help it become a trading hub for Asia at a regional meeting held in Kabul on Thursday.

    More than 30 countries have attended the two-day Regional Economic Cooperation Conference on Afghanistan (RECCA) meeting in Kabul, to discuss how to rebuild the country's economy after decades of violent conflict.

    Deputy Foreign Minister Hekmat Khalil Karzai launched the conference, which centered around President Ashraf Ghani's call to build a "New Silk Road" through Afghanistan, saying his country was well aware of the political sensitivities that would have to be overcome.

    "Political will and political discords are immensely influential variables in our shared attempt to build greater regional integration," he noted.

    Les resten av artikkelen her.



    Turkey looks forward to China’s ‘New Silk Road’ project

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    AA photo

    Turkey is looking forward to China’s New Silk Road project that will be discussed further when China takes over the G-20 presidency in January 2016, Rifat Hisarcıklıoğlu, organizer of the B-20 Turkey and president of Turkey’s Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges (TOBB), said Sept. 5. Hisarcıklıoğlu also said at a session discussing China’s chairmanship of the B-20 next year on the sidelines of the B-20 in Turkey in Ankara that Turkey had tried to offer innovative ideas and solutions to the world’s critical issues during its G-20 presidency.

    “Since the beginning, Turkey’s goal was to make real changes. So, we tried to offer innovative ideas and solutions to the world’s critical issues. We developed recommendations, for both developed and emerging economies,” he said.
    He noted that the B-20 Turkey also introduced bold recommendations suitable for China’s G-20 leadership in 2016. “We are very excited about projects like the ‘New Silk Road.’ We believe that future innovations in trade will come from this road,” he said. “I’m sure China will host a very successful conference next year. We will be there to help you, at every stage,” he added.
    Yu Ping, vice chairman of the China Council for Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), said the policy paper on the B-20 Turkey had been very diverse in content, which strongly expressed the voice of the G-20 business communities.

    According to Yu, China’s G-20 presidency efforts next year would likely promote structural reform among a host of issues.
    The B-20 (Business 20) is the business arm of the G-20, which represents the international business community and brings together influential business leaders from G-20 countries.

    September/06/2015

    Link til artikkel.


    Kazakhstan, Turkey Create Defense Cooperation Plan for 2016-2018

    Astana has played host to the the 8th session of the Kazakh-Turkish Defense Industry Cooperation Commission, the Kazakh Defense Ministry said in a press statement issued on Friday. Experts from the two countries discussed the draft Road Map for Cooperation in the Military-Industrial Sector for 2016-2018 during the session, according to Akipress.
    During their talks, officials from the ministries of defense of the two nations reviewed the enhancement of cooperation for the joint modernization of arms, avionic technology, helicopters, as well as the domestic production of arms and military equipment. “The plan will be signed in the near future,” the related press release said.

    Les mer her.



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    Jordan says China's "Belt and Road" initiatives will boost trade with Arab countries

    AMMAN, Sept. 5 (Xinhua) -- The China-proposed "Belt and Road" initiatives are to boost trade with Jordan, the Middle East and North Africa, experts and economists said on Saturday.

    The Silk Road Economic Belt, together with the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road, commonly known as the "Belt and Road" initiatives, were proposed by China in 2013.

    The initiatives bring together countries in Asia, Europe and even Africa via overland and maritime networks, with the purpose of boosting infrastructure building, financial cooperation and cultural exchanges in those regions.
    "The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road will play a major role in facilitating trade, reducing costs and thus increasing trade exchanges between China and countries in the region," Mohammad Dawood, the president of the Jordan Truck Owners Association, told Xinhua.

    "This is a major project that will definitely strengthen ties between China and the Arab states. Trade exchange is already huge and it will be further strengthened," he said. "Shipping cargo will be faster and more convenient. We are very excited to see this project opening," Dawood added. Maha Al Ali, Jordan's minister of industry and trade, said Jordan will participate in the China-Arab States Expo later this week and is very interested in learning more about the initiatives.

    The expo, which will be held in China during September 10-13, is a cooperation mechanism for the "Belt and Road" initiatives.

    Link til artikkel.


    China, Tunisia promote cultural exchanges

    XI'AN, Sept. 7 (Xinhua) -- China and Tunisia signed a memorandum of understanding on Monday, promising to promote cooperation by opening a cultural center in the other's country. The Chinese cultural center in Tunisia will be the second of its kind in north Africa. In the city of Xi'an, the MOU was signed by the two countries' cultural ministers at an international art show about the Silk Road. "Culture is the best way for two countries to understand each other," said Luo Shugang, Chinese cultural minister. "The Chinese cultural center will be a platform for deepened cultural communication and cooperation between the two sides."

    Les resten av artikkelen her.


    U.S. unwise to oppose China's "One Belt, One Road" initiative: U.S. media

    WASHINGTON, Aug. 31 (Xinhua) -- An editorial in the U.S. magazine The National Interest says the United States should not oppose China's "One Belt, One Road" initiative nor fear China's engagement in Eurasia as it improves global stability.
    China's push towards the West "is an attractive focal point -- as it avoids the tensions of East Asia" and can "serve as a tool for development, and can assist in enhancing security in a region where it is needed," said Jeffrey Payne in an editorial published Thursday.

    "Chinese adventures in Eurasia also facilitate the United States' interests in Asia," Payne said. The writer criticized the United States' muted response to the "One Belt, One Road" initiative, saying that the benefits of the plan are offset by fears of China's increasing presence throughout Eurasia.

    Les hele artikkelen her.


    China's new $16bn gold fund at centre of new 'Silk Road'
    New gold investment fund may help to boost trade across Asia


    According to the report in Shanghai Securities News, the new fund will also form part of an audacious plan by Beijing to create a new economic bloc across Asia and Europe, known as the ‘Silk Road’ initiative. China’s President Xi Jinping wants the initiative, also known as ‘One Belt, One Road’ plan to help double the country’ economy over the next decade.

    Les hele artikkelen her.



    Yamal LNG project: new northern gas route

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    Final shareholder structure of Yamal LNG will be as follows: OAO NOVATEK (60%), Total S.A. (20%) and CNPC (20%). In 2014 Chinese oil & gas giant CNPC expects necessary regulatory approvals to enter the project as a shareholder. In the future NOVATEK leaves open the possibility to sell 10% more shares to Japanese and Indian investors, but will retain a controlling interest in Yamal LNG (50% + 1 share).

    Les hele artikkelen her.


    Russia draws up business plan to revive the Northern Sea Route

    The Northern Sea Route (NSR) gradually becomes an important transport corridor
    : latest navigation season set a new recordin the number of vessels. The Russian energy giant Gazprom successfully completed world’s first LNG supply via the route. What are the economic reasons behind this ambitious project?

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    Private investors also see economic benefits of the NSR. Norwegian businessman Felix H. Tschudi (Tschudi Shipping Company) has completed a feasibility study of the transport corridor. “It is no longer difficult to obtain permission. Atomflot and the NSR Administration are service minded,” he says. Recent energy supply by Gazprom has proven that the route linking West and East can be quick and cost-effective. Fridtjof Nansen Institute (Norway) estimated, that eastbound transit cargo potential between Europe and the north Pacific Region via the NSR may reach 5 million tons.

    Les hele artikkelen her.



    China's 'One Belt, One Road' looks to take construction binge offshore

    XUZHOU, China, Sept 7

    Two years after Chinaunveiled a sweeping plan to rebuild Silk Road trade links withEurope and Asia, machinery maker XCMG Group has opened a factoryin Uzbekistan, sent 300 staff abroad and set ambitious goals togrow overseas.
    XCMG's foreign venture piggybacks on China's bold scheme toextend its global influence through financing infrastructureprojects in 65 nations that are home to two-thirds of humanity,and at the same time win new markets for companies weighed downby profit-crushing overcapacity at home.

    "This is China's grand strategy," said Hanson Liu, assistantpresident at Xuzhou Construction Machinery Group,which aims to grow overseas income from 15 percent of totalrevenue in 2014 to more than 30 percent in the next five years.

    Les resten av artikkelen til Reuters her.


    How China Can Perfect Its 'Silk Road' Strategy

    The challenges facing China’s Silk Road strategy — and how to overcome them.

    In 2014, “one belt and one road” (OBOR), a reference to the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, were the keywords for Chinese diplomacy. The OBOR strategy has become China’s major foreign policy goal, Beijing will promote this initiative economically, politically, militarily and culturally over the next eight to ten years. In Chinese academia, it’s often said that 2013 marked the conception of the OBOR idea, while 2014 saw its operationalization. In 2015, the main task will be fully implementing OBOR.

    Les hele artikkelen her.




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  4. #3
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    Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    The new Silk Road | The Economist

    That is only the beginning. In “China’s Disruptors”, Edward Tse argues that “China’s entrepreneurial companies will become far more active internationally, entering new markets, acquiring companies and hiring executives.” He believes they will pose an enormous threat to established businesses in many industries. And yet global Chinese entrepreneurs could also be good for the world, as Wanxiang’s example shows.
    - Putzes in da house.

  5. #4
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Muligens litt på siden, men likevel like relevant for disse opprinnelige Silkeveiene som pusses opp.

    Kina har bygget vei og jernbane m.v i den tredje verden i flere tiår, det er bare oss i den "vestlige" verden som ikke har fått det med seg.
    Beyond is where I learn

  6. #5
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Og de fortsetter å pøse på med store summer i nevnte land/regioner. Her hjemme har vi nok hvert i overkant forbanna på NSB og lite punktlig opptreden, men spøk til side, så blir Silkeveien et eget prosjekt, uavhengig av jern lagt på jorda i ulike land tidligere.
    - Putzes in da house.

  7. #6
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.


    It now takes only 11.5 days from Chongqing in China to Duisburg in Germany by freight train. Photo: SCMP Pictures
    China's Silk Road strategy takes shape in Khorgos

    China is looking to increase investment in a new government-owned dry port in Kazakhstan as part of its Silk Road plan.

    "Now it takes only 11.5 days from Chongqing in China to Duisburg in Germany by freight train and it is expected to shorten to 10 days in the future," said Hadaway. "Rather than ocean cargo, it is competing with air freight because it is so much cheaper."

    ---
    China Voice: Belt and Road will lead China to closer interaction with the world


    BEIJING, Oct. 19 (Xinhua) -- China's Belt and Road Initiative will bring about three drastic changes leading to closer interaction between China and the rest of the world. The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road are international trade and infrastructure projects proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping during his overseas visits in 2013.

    ---

    Photo: Bloomberg
    Good news is bad news for China

    Beijing’s ambitious Silk Road initiative to build roads, ports and railways throughout Asia and beyond is meant to be a bonanza for Chinese construction firms. All this may tamp down joblessness today, but at the cost of greater productivity and efficiency in the economy.

    The Conference Board figures that unless China presses ahead more aggressively with pro-market reforms, GDP growth could sink to 4% from 2020. That sharp a slowdown would spur widespread unemployment and destabilize debt-laden companies. So, don’t worry so much about the data out of China today. Worry about what those numbers may look like five years from now.
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  8. #7
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Jeg tenker at silkeveien kan bli Europa og Amerika sin største utfordring når det gjelder å ha egen industri, men samtidig åpner det for enorme handelsmuligheter, jeg r meget spent på effekten av silkeruten. Maktbalanser vil bli forskjøvet flere plasser langs ruten og de økonomiske interessene vil bli store med forskjellige mål alt etter hvor man er på ruten.

    Jeg vill tro at allerede i dag jobber stormaktene med å posisjonere seg langs ruten uten at jeg vet hvordan. Noen må da mene noe om den nye silkeveien på milforum

  9. #8
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Kan ruten i seg selv være et terrormål, mtp lokale krigsherrer som finner ut at de skal kapre noen biler f.eks?

    Sent fra min C6903 via Tapatalk
    Odd objects attract fire. You are odd.

  10. #9
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Som det står et par hakk opp her, jernbane og vei konkurrerer ikke med skip for de transport av de store varemengdene mellom Europa og USA, og Øst-Asia. Men de kan være konkurransedyktige når det gjelder enkelte dyre varer. Transportkapasiteten pr skip er uansett så mye større enn den noensinne vil kunne bli over land. Maersk setter inn 20 Triple E enorme containerskip (jeg har sett et på nært hold, det er gigantisk) kun i rute mellom Kina og Europa, hvert av dem tar 18.000 20-fots containere.
    At sauene vedtar at alle skal leve av gress hjelper dem lite hvis ikke ulvene er enige.

  11. #10
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    China?s ?Belt and Road? Reaches Europe | The Diplomat

    Chinese Premier Li Keqiang hosted 16 European leaders in Suhzou on Tuesday and Wednesday, for the fourth China-Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) summit.

    The format, which held its first summit in 2012 in Warsaw, Poland, brings together leaders from China and 16 Central and Eastern European states: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Slovenia.*
    Odd objects attract fire. You are odd.

  12. #11
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    http://thediplomat.com/2015/12/is-ch...ampaign=buffer

    Did Xi Jinping just acknowledge that the Maritime Silk Road has, in fact, a strong military dimension?

    That seems to be the case, following a joint declaration made with his Djibouti counterpart, Ismail Omar Guelleh (IOG), on the sidelines of the Forum on China Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in Johannesburg. According to*Xinhua, the usually guarded Xi welcomed “Djibouti’s participation in developing Beijing-proposed 21st-century Maritime Silk Road in proper ways.”
    Odd objects attract fire. You are odd.

  13. #12
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Skal Kina bli en joker å regne med i Midt-Østen fremover? Følgende sakset fra Sputnik News:

    http://sputniknews.com/politics/2016...icy-paper.html

    Courting Arab World? China Building 'Silk Road' to the Middle East

    The Chinese government has published its first Arab Policy Paper, which calls for greater political, economic and security cooperation with the region that is Beijing's main supplier of petroleum and seventh largest trading partner.

    Relations with the Arab world, according to Beijing, should be based on China's Silk Road initiative, also known as One Belt, One Road, using a "1+2+3" formula. The $40-billion development strategy, which was unveiled in 2013, is meant to promote economic integration, particularly in Eurasia, and consists of two main components – the land-based "Silk Road Economic Belt" and "Maritime Silk Road."
    When it comes to energy relations between China and the Arab world, "the full truth is even more striking," The Diplomat pointed out. "Saudi Arabia alone is China's largest supplier of oil, and when you factor in Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates, the Arab world accounts for over 40 percent of China’s total oil imports."
    Flere kommentarer på dette dokumentet:
    http://english.cntv.cn/2016/01/13/AR...Wp160113.shtml

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/963587.shtml :

    China does not have colonial history in the Arab region nor does it have any issues or conflicts with the Arabs, unlike many Western countries such as the United States, Britain, France and others, he said.
    Her er dokumentet i full-tekst-size:

    Full text of China's Arab Policy Paper

    BEIJING, Jan. 13 (Xinhua) -- The Chinese government on Wednesday issued its first Arab policy paper. Following is an English version of the paper:
    China's Arab Policy PaperJanuary 2016
    Foreword
    Friendship between China and Arab states dates back to ancient times. Over two thousand years ago, land and maritime Silk Roads already linked the Chinese and Arab nations. In the long stretches of history, peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, learning from each other, mutual benefit and win-win results have always been the main theme of exchanges between China and Arab countries.


    The founding of the People's Republic of China and the independence of Arab countries created a new era for China-Arab friendly exchanges. From 1956 to 1990, China established diplomatic relations with all 22 Arab countries. China firmly supports Arab national liberation movement, firmly supports Arab countries' struggle to uphold sovereignty and territorial integrity, pursue and safeguard national interests, and combat external interference and aggression, and firmly supports Arab countries' cause of developing the national economy and building up the countries. Arab countries have given China strong support in restoring its lawful seat at the United Nations and on issues like the Taiwan question.


    After the end of the Cold War, both China and Arab countries have followed the world trend of peace, development and cooperation, respected each other, treated each other as equals, and committed themselves to deepening the traditional friendship and the bilateral relations. Cooperation in political, trade and economic, scientific and technological, cultural and educational, military, health, sports, news,and other fields has achieved fruitful results, thus enabling the establishment of the friendly and cooperative relationship oriented toward the 21st century.


    In 2004, China-Arab States Cooperation Forum was set up. Since then, it has developed into a collective cooperation platform covering many fields and with more than ten mechanisms. In 2010, China and Arab countries established the strategic cooperative relations of comprehensive cooperation and common development, and China-Arab collective cooperation entered a new stage of comprehensive development and upgrading. President Xi Jinping delivered an important speech at the opening ceremony of the Sixth Ministerial Conference of China-Arab States Cooperation Forum, identifying key areas and priority directions of China-Arab collective cooperation, and providing guidance for the development of the China-Arab relations and the Forum.


    Since the establishment of diplomatic ties between China and Arab countries 60 years ago, cooperation in all fields has been constantly deepened. China has built comprehensive strategic partnership, strategic partnership or strategic cooperative partnership with eight Arab countries, and has set up a strategic dialogue mechanism with the Gulf Cooperation Council. Arab countries as a whole have become China's biggest supplier of crude oil and the 7th biggest trading partner. China's proposed initiatives of jointly building the "Silk Road Economic Belt" and the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road", establishing a "1+2+3" cooperation pattern (to take energy cooperation as the core,infrastructure construction and trade and investment facilitation as the two wings, and three high and new tech fields of nuclear energy, space satellite and new energy as the three breakthroughs), and industrial capacity cooperation, are well received by Arab countries. Both sides have broad consensus on safeguarding state sovereignty and territorial integrity, defending national dignity, seeking political resolution to hotspot issues, and promoting peace and stability in the Middle East. We share similar views on issues such as reform of the United Nations, climate change and Doha Round trade negotiations, and maintain sound coordination and cooperation. Cultural and educational exchanges are more frequent and people-to-people ties are getting closer with enhanced mutual understanding and friendship between the two peoples.


    Over the past 60 years, China-Arab friendly cooperation has made historic leaps in breadth and depth. It has become a model of South-South cooperation and gained the following successful experience: both sides have always respected and treated each other as equals and remained brothers, friends and partners no matter what happens on the world arena; both sides have insisted on the principle of mutual benefit, win-win and common development and have pursued common interests and sustainable development no matter what changes or developments take place on either side; and both sides have promoted dialogue, exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations, and have always respected each other's social system and development path no matter what differences exist in ideology.


    The Chinese government has issued the first China's Arab Policy Paper on the basis of reviewing and summarizing the experience in the development of China-Arab relations. It stipulates the guiding principle for developing China-Arab relations, offers the blueprint for China-Arab mutually beneficial cooperation, and reiterates the political will of commitment to peace and stability in the Middle East, in order to promote China-Arab relations to a new and higher level.


    Part I Deepen China-Arab Strategic Cooperative Relations of Comprehensive Cooperation and Common Development


    The world is experiencing profound and complex changes. The trend toward a multipolar world and economic globalization is deepening, and cultural diversity and the information society continue to move forward. Changes in the international configuration and international order are accelerating. All countries in the world are seizing the opportunity to readjust their development strategies, promote reform and innovation, speed up economic transformation and open up new development horizons. At the same time, the world economy is still in a period of deep transformation, with geopolitical factors becoming more prominent, regional turbulences rising one after another, non-traditional security and global challenges increasing and the gap between the North and the South widening. It remains an arduous journey to advance mankind's noble cause of peace and development.


    China is the largest developing country in the world and is working hard to realize the two centenary goals and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, which is to build a strong, prosperous, democratic, culturally-advanced and harmonious modern socialist country. China will continue to uphold the banner of peace, development and win-win cooperation, be committed to peaceful development, pursue a win-win strategy of opening up and promote the formation of a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation.


    Arab states are situated in the converging area of the Asian and African continents, characterized by religious and cultural diversities, time-honored culture and history, unique resource endowment and great potentials for development. Currently, Arab states are independently exploring the development paths suited to their own national realities. They are committed to pursuing industrialization, enhancing employment and improving people's livelihood. They are active in promoting peace and stability in the region and are playing important roles in regional and international affairs.


    China and Arab states are both developing countries with their combined territory, population and economic aggregate accounting for 1/6, 1/4 and 1/8 of the world's total respectively. Different in natural endowment and development level, China and Arab countries are all in an important development stage and have a shared mission of rejuvenating the nation. We need to collaborate with each other more closely, and learn from each other along the road of development, strengthen cooperation in seeking common development and promoting regional peace, and echo each other in building a new type of international relations, so as to safeguard state sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity, and to promote stability, economic development and well-being of our peoples.


    China will continue to carry forward China-Arab traditional friendship, enrich and deepen our all-round, multi-layer, wide-ranging cooperation, promote sustainable and sound development of our strategic cooperative relations featuring all-round cooperation and common development, and safeguard peace, stability and development of the region and the world at large.


    Part II China's Arab Policy


    Arab states are China's important partners in following the peaceful development path, strengthening unity and cooperation among developing countries and establishing a new type of international relations with win-win cooperation at its core. China has always approached the China-Arab relations from a strategic height. It is China's long-held diplomatic principle to consolidate and deepen China-Arab traditional friendship. China will adhere to the right approach to justice and interests and promote peace, stability and development of Arab states while seeking better development of China, to achieve win-win cooperation,common development and a better future of the China-Arab strategic and cooperative relations.


    China upholds the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, namely,mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful co-existence. China supports the Middle East peace process and the establishment of an independent state of Palestine with full sovereignty, based on the pre-1967 borders, with East Jerusalem as its capital. China supports the Arab League and its member states' efforts to this end. We adhere to political solution to regional hot spot issues, and support the establishment of a nuclear weapon-free and WMD-free zone in the Middle East. We support positive efforts made by Arab states in strengthening unity, curbing the spread of extremist thoughts and fighting terrorism. China respects choices made by the Arab people, and supports Arab states in exploring their own development paths suited to their national conditions. We hope to enhance the sharing of governance experience with Arab states.


    China is willing to have pragmatic cooperation in the principle of mutual benefit and win-win results with Arab states. In particular, in the process of jointly pursuing the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiative, China is willing to coordinate development strategies with Arab states, put into play each other's advantages and potentials, promote international production capacity cooperation and enhance cooperation in the fields of infrastructure construction, trade and investment facilitation, nuclear power, space satellite, new energy, agriculture and finance, so as to achieve common progress and development and benefit our two peoples. China is willing to cooperate with Arab states to promote the new type of cooperation mechanism featuring openness and reciprocality, mutual benefit and win-win results. According to Arab states' needs, China will continue to provide assistance within our means to Arab states through bilateral and multilateral channels, to help them improve self-development capability and people's livelihood.


    China is willing to work with Arab states to contribute to diversified development and mutual learning among world civilizations. We will enhance people-to-people exchanges, strengthen cooperation in such areas as science, education, culture, health, radio, film and television, deepen understanding and friendship between the two peoples, promote mutual learning and integration between the two cultures, build a communication bridge between the two peoples, and jointly contribute to the progress of human civilization.


    China is willing to strengthen consultation and coordination with Arab states, and jointly uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, implement the United Nations 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, safeguard international equity and justice, and make the international order more fair and just. On major international issues, such as the United Nations reform, climate change, food and energy security, both sides respect each other's core interests and major concerns, support each other's justifiable demand and reasonable propositions, and staunchly safeguard the common interests of developing countries.


    Part III Strengthen China-Arab Cooperation in an All-around Manner


    1. Political Cooperation
    1.1 High-Level Exchanges
    We will keep the momentum of high-level exchanges and dialogues, make full use of meetings between high-level officials to guide the development of China-Arab relations. We will strengthen communication on bilateral relations and important issues of mutual concern, increase exchanges of experience of governance and economic development, consolidate political mutual trust, broaden common interests and boost practical cooperation.


    1.2 Intergovernmental Consultation and Cooperation Mechanisms
    We will further improve the mechanism of China-Arab intergovernmental consultation and cooperation, make the best of bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, such as the strategic dialogue and political consultation, and enhance exchanges and communication, in order to realize common development.


    1.3 Exchanges between Legislatures, Political Parties and Local Governments
    On the basis of mutual respect, deepening understanding and expanding cooperation, the National People's Congress of China is willing to further expand multi-level and multi-channel exchanges and cooperation with legislatures of Arab states.
    In the principle of independence, equality, mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs, the Communist Party of China is willing to further enhance exchanges with friendly political parties and organizations in Arab countries, consolidating the political foundation of China-Arab relations.


    We will continue to boost exchanges between local governments, strengthen the mechanism of China-Arab City Forum, support the establishment of more sister cities or provinces, and promote exchanges and cooperation on local development and administration.


    1.4 Cooperation on International Affairs
    We will strengthen consultation in international affairs, maintain communication and coordination on major international and regional issues, support each other on issues of core interests or major concern. We will keep closer cooperation and coordination in international organizations and defend the common interests of the two sides and all developing countries.
    We will jointly uphold the international order and international system with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter at its core. We are actively involved in building a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation and jointly promoting world peace and development. We support the UN in playing a leading role in maintaining peace, promoting common development and enhancing international cooperation. We support the UN to undergo necessary and reasonable reforms and increase the representation and voice of developing countries, including Arab states, at the UN Security Council.

    1.5 The Taiwan Question
    The Taiwan question concerns the core interests of China. The one China principle is the important basis for China to establish and develop relations with Arab states and regional organizations. Arab states and regional organizations have always been committed to the one China principle, refrained from having any official relations or official exchanges with Taiwan, and supported China in peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and the great cause of national reunification. China appreciates all these.


    2. Investment and Trade Cooperation


    2.1 "The Belt and Road" Initiative
    Joint efforts will be made by China and Arab countries to promote the "Belt and Road" initiative under the principle of wide consultation, joint contribution and shared benefit. China and Arab countries will adopt the "1+2+3" cooperation pattern to upgrade pragmatic cooperation by taking energy cooperation as the core infrastructure construction and trade and investment facilitation as the two wings, and high and new technologies in the fields of nuclear energy, space satellite and new energy as the three breakthroughs".

    2.2 Cooperation on Production Capacity
    Following the principle of market-oriented business operation in which enterprises serve as the main player and government as the facilitator, we will combine China's advantage of production capacity with demands of Arab states, carry out with Arab states advanced, suitable, effective, employment-oriented and environment-friendly production capacity cooperation, supporting Arab states in their efforts to realize industrialization.

    2.3 Investment Cooperation
    On the basis of equality and mutually beneficial cooperation for win-win results, we encourage and support the expansion and optimization of mutual investment by enterprises from the two sides. We will expand cooperation areas, diversify cooperation methods, broaden investment and financing channels and strengthen cooperation on two-way investment and financing through equities and debts as well as the use of loans, mezzanine financing, direct investment and funds. China is ready to continue to provide foreign-aid loan on favorable terms to Arab countries, as well as export credits and overseas investment insurance. We will push for the signing of agreements with Arab countries on avoiding double taxation and tax evasion, thus creating a sound investment environment, providing convenience to investors from both sides and protecting their legitimate rights and interests.

    2.4 Trade
    We support the entry of more non-oil products from Arab states into the Chinese market. We will continue to improve the trade structure and push for sustained and steady development of two-way trade. We will strengthen exchanges and consultations between Chinese and Arab trade authorities, complete China-GCC FTA negotiations and sign a free trade agreement at an early date. We will oppose trade protectionism and actively remove non-tariff trade barriers, properly resolve trade disputes and frictions through friendly consultations, and gradually establish bilateral and multilateral mechanisms of early warning for trade disputes and cooperation on trade remedies. We will step up cooperation on inspection and quarantine, speed up the alignment of standards, enhance personnel exchanges and training and jointly crack down on fake and shoddy goods in exports and exports.

    2.5 Energy Cooperation
    We will carry out cooperation on the basis of reciprocity and mutual benefit, promote and support investment cooperation with Arab countries in the field of petroleum and natural gas, in particular, investment cooperation on oil prospecting, extraction, transportation and refining, and advance the synergizing of oilfield engineering technology service, equipment trade, and industrial standards. We will strengthen cooperation on renewable energy such as solar energy, wind energy and hydropower. We will jointly build the China-Arab clear energy training center and develop all-round cooperation in related areas.

    2.6 Infrastructure Construction
    We encourage and support broader participation by Chinese companies and financial institutions in the cooperation with Arab countries in such areas as railway, highway, ports, aviation, power,communications, Beidou Navigation Satellite, satellite ground stations and other infrastructure development fields and more extensive cooperation on project operation. According to the priority areas of development and needs of Arab countries, we will be actively engaged in cooperation on major projects in Arab countries to constantly improve Arab countries' infrastructure.

    2.7 Space Cooperation
    We will further develop space cooperation with Arab countries, actively explore joint projects in such fields as space technology, satellites and their application, space education and training, accelerate the applying of the Beidou Navigation Satellite system in Arab countries, and promote exchanges and cooperation on manned spaceflight, so as to enhance the level of cooperation in this field.

    2.8 Civilian Nuclear Cooperation
    We will strengthen China-Arab cooperation on the design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear technology training. We will be actively engaged in cooperation covering the whole nuclear industrial chain, and promote cooperation between the two sides in basic scientific research, nuclear fuels, research reactors, application of nuclear technologies, nuclear security, disposal of radioactive wastes, emergency responses and nuclear safety. We will accelerate the joint efforts of building an Arab training center for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and upgrade the level of cooperation in the nuclear field.

    2.9 Financial Cooperation
    We support the establishment of branches in each other's countries by qualified financial institutions from both sides, and multi-sector operation cooperation, as well as strengthened exchanges and cooperation between regulators. We will strengthen monetary cooperation between central banks, discuss the expansion of cross-border currency clearing and currency swap arrangements, and increase financing insurance support. We will strengthen coordination and cooperation in international financial organizations and mechanisms, improve and reform the international financial system, and increase the voice and representation of developing countries. China welcomes the Arab countries to join the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and their active role in it.

    2.10 Development of Economic and Trade Cooperation Mechanisms and Platforms
    We will give full play to the role of the inter-governmental economic and trade joint commissions, the China-Arab Joint Chamber of Commerce and other bilateral or multilateral mechanisms, make full use of China-Arab States Expo and other platforms, and promote the exchange of visits and communication between governments and enterprises of the two sides.

    3. Social Development

    3.1 Health Care
    We will strengthen exchanges and cooperation in traditional and modern medicine, pay attention to the prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, especially to cooperation on information sharing and monitoring of epidemics, and promote exchange of visits by experts from both sides. We will advance cooperation between medical institutions and enhance exchanges on clinical technology. We will continue to send medical teams and continuously improve service.

    3.2 Education and Human Resources Development
    We will strengthen cooperation on education and human resources development, expand the scale and innovate the ways of cooperation. We encourage colleges and universities from both sides to carry out joint scientific research in history and culture, scientific and technological application, region and country-specific studies. We will promote the development of China-Jordan University, support China-Arab joint personnel training, expand the scale of exchanges of students, and gradually increase the number of government exchange scholarships, the proportion of graduate students and the number of disciplines. We will strengthen education of the Chinese language in Arab countries, and support training programs of Chinese language teachers in Arab countries. We will be actively engaged in vocational education exchanges and cooperation, and share best practices.

    3.3 Cooperation on Science and Technology
    We will accelerate the development of China-Arab inter-governmental science and technology innovation cooperation mechanism. We will implement the China-Arab partner project of science and technology and continue to improve the science and technology capability of Arab states. Through the China-Arab technology transfer center, we will establish a China-Arab collaboration network of integrated technology transfer. We will implement the "Outstanding Young Scientist Coming to China Project" and encourage the exchanges between young scientific talents of China and Arab states. We will jointly establish a batch of joint national laboratories, joint research centers and specialized science parks, set up platforms for enterprises to go global and encourage hi-tech Chinese enterprises to innovate, start businesses and establish R&D centers in Arab States. We will invite Arab technicians to participate in technology training courses for developing countries organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. We will actively promote the application and spread of technological achievements and advanced applied technologies of China and Arab states in each other's countries.

    3.4 Agricultural Cooperation
    We will strengthen China-Arab bilateral and multilateral cooperation in such fields as arid zone agriculture, water-saving irrigation, muslim food, food security, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine. We encourage agricultural science and technology personnel from the two sides to increase exchanges. We will continue to set up demonstration projects of agricultural technology in Arab countries, scale up agricultural management and technology training, and strengthen project follow-up and evaluation.

    3.5 Cooperation on Addressing Climate Change, Environmental Protection and Forestry
    We will vigorously promote communication and coordination with Arab states within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Convention on Biological Diversity and United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Control of Desertification. We will be actively engaged in exchanges and cooperation through bilateral and multilateral channels on policy dialogue and information sharing, environmental legislation, water, air and soil pollution control and treatment, environmental protection awareness, environmental impact assessment, environmental monitoring, environmental protection industries and technologies, bio-diversity protection, prevention and control of desertification, arid zone forestry, forest management, training of environmental staff and holding seminars. We will work together to enhance our capability of addressing climate change and environmental protection.

    4. Culture and People-to-people Exchanges

    4.1 Exchanges Among Civilizations and Religious
    We will promote dialogue between civilizations and promote exchanges between different religions. We will build bilateral and multilateral platforms for religious exchanges, advocate religious harmony and tolerance, explore cooperation on eradicating extremism, and jointly contain the breeding and expansion of extremism.

    4.2 Cooperation on Culture, Broadcasting, Film, Television, Press, Publication and Think Tanks
    We encourage regular exchange of visits of cultural officials, friendly partnership between cultural institutions and experience sharing between the two sides. We encourage mutual establishment of culture centers, and support holding culture years and participating in art festivals hosted by the other side. We will fulfill the plan of "China-Arab exchange of visits by 10,000 artists," strengthen cultivation of cultural professionals and cooperation of culture industries.

    We will enhance China-Arab news media dialogue and cooperation, deepen business exchanges, news articles exchange and personnel training. We will support joint interviews, joint productions and joint operation of media institutions. The two sides will boost cooperation on broadcasting, film and television exchanges, and will continue to hold China-Arab broadcasting and television cooperation forum, conduct translation and authorized broadcasting of television programs and carry out broadcasting and television technology and industry cooperation. We encourage the two sides to hold film weeks of, send film delegations to and actively participate in international film festivals hosted by the other side. We will translate and dub some Chinese artistic works into Arabic and vice versa. We encourage Arab States Broadcasting Union to cooperate with China Radio International and the Arabic Channel of China Central Television.
    We encourage cooperation of press and publication institutions of the two sides, actively implement the "Memorandum of China-Arab Project of Mutual Translation and Publication of Ancient Books," and encourage and support publishers from the two sides to take part in international book fairs hosted by each other.


    We will enhance exchanges of experts and scholars from the two sides and actively explore the establishment of a long-term China-Arab exchange mechanism of think tanks.

    4.3 Exchanges Between Non-governmental Organizations, Youth and Women
    We will continue to enhance non-governmental exchanges, improve the mechanism of China-Arab friendship conference, and provide more support to China-Arab friendship associations. We encourage and support orderly exchanges of various forms between non-governmental organizations and social groups.
    We will actively promote China-Arab youth communications, and enhance exchanges between departments of youth affairs and young elites from all walks of life of the two sides.
    We will continue to strengthen China-Arab exchanges and cooperation on gender equality, encourage and support high-level dialogues, seminars, cultural exchanges and capacity-building activities between departments and organizations in charge of women's affairs.

    4.4 Cooperation on Tourism
    We encourage tourism departments and businesses to introduce tourism resources and products to each other and carry out tourism cooperation. The Chinese side welcomes Arab states' application for the Approved Destination Status for outbound group tours by Chinese tourists.

    5. Cooperation in the Field of Peace and Security

    5.1 Regional Security
    China calls for a concept of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security in the Middle East, and supports Arab and regional countries in their efforts to build an inclusive and shared regional collective cooperation security mechanism, so as to realize long-term peace, prosperity and development in the Middle East.

    5.2 Military Cooperation
    We will deepen China-Arab military cooperation and exchange. We will strengthen exchange of visits of military officials, expand military personnel exchange, deepen cooperation on weapons, equipment and various specialized technologies, and carry out joint military exercises. We will continue to support the development of national defence and military forces of Arab States to maintain peace and security of the region.

    5.3 Anti-terrorism Cooperation
    We resolutely oppose and condemn all forms of terrorism, and oppose coupling terrorism with any specific ethnic group or religion as well as double standards. We support the efforts of Arab States in countering terrorism and support their counter-terrorism capacity building. The Chinese side believes that counter-terrorism needs comprehensive measures to address both the symptoms and root causes, and counter-terrorism operations should comply with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international norms, and respect sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of all countries.


    China is ready to strengthen anti-terrorism exchanges and cooperation with Arab countries to establish a long-term security cooperation mechanism, strengthen policy dialogue and intelligence information exchange, and carry out technical cooperation and personnel training to jointly address the threat of international and regional terrorism.

    5.4 Consular, Immigration, Judicial and Police Cooperation
    We will earnestly safeguard the safety and legitimate interests of enterprises and citizens of China and Arab states in each other's countries, and actively make institutional arrangements for bilateral personnel exchanges. We will consolidate the results of bilateral cooperation in mutual legal assistance, extradition and repatriation, fugitive repatriation and asset recovery, and set up cooperation on the signing of treaties on legal assistance, as well as fighting transnational organized crimes and corruption.

    5.5 Non-Traditional Security
    We will jointly enhance the capability to cope with non-traditional security threats, support the international community's efforts to combat piracy, continue to send warships to the Gulf of Aden and waters off Somalia to maintain international maritime security, and conduct cyber security cooperation.

    Part IV China-Arab States Cooperation Forum and Its Follow-up Actions

    The China-Arab States Cooperation Forum was established 11 years ago with dialogue, cooperation, peace and development as its purposes. The mechanism has been gradually improved, and covered an increasingly wide range of areas. It has become an important platform for collective dialogue and pragmatic cooperation between the two sides based on equality and mutual benefit. China and Arab countries have established a strategic cooperative partnership featuring comprehensive cooperation and common development within the framework of China-Arab States Cooperation Forum, providing a strong support for long-term sustainable development of China-Arab relations.

    China will remain committed to the development of China-Arab States Cooperation Forum, and together with the Arab countries, further enrich China-Arab cooperation, make innovative efforts on cooperation models and upgrade the level of cooperation, put into play the leading role of the ministerial meeting, and constantly enrich and improvement cooperation mechanisms in trade, culture, media, non-governmental exchanges and other fields, so as to promote China-Arab exchanges and cooperation across the board.

    Part V Relations Between China and Arab Regional Organizations

    China attaches great importance to its relations with the Arab League, and respects the efforts by the Arab League in maintaining regional peace and stability and promoting regional development. We support a bigger role of the Arab League in other regional and international affairs. China is willing to continue to strengthen consultation and cooperation with the Arab League in various fields.

    China appreciates the active role played by Arab sub-regional organizations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council in maintaining regional peace and promoting development, and stands ready to strengthen friendly exchanges and cooperation with these organizations.
    - Putzes in da house.

  14. #13
    Battle Captain
    Ble medlem
    May 2006
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Kina blir absolutt en maktfaktor fremover, både i Midt-Østen og andre steder.

    Det er egentlig veldig mye bra i den erklæringen, men den interesserte vil savne ett begrep: "Human rights" er ikke nevnt.
    "Those who beat their swords into plowshares will plow for those who don't."

    på Twitter

  15. #14
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Greie volumer mellom EU og Kina:

    How China-Europe "Silk Road" Trains Are Sparking A Renaissance For Trans-Continental Rail Transport

    “This was all started one hundred years ago by the Russians,” DHL’s Konrad Godlewski stated as he pointed to a long line that extended across a giant map of Eurasia which was prominently displayed at the front of an office in the Suzhou Railway Consolidated Freight Station, a bonded logistics zone in the east of China. “The Trans-Siberian,” he continued, “is what began this whole idea of shipping by rail between Europe and Asia.”

    Trade volume between the European Union and China is totaling more than US$600 billion per year, and by 2020 it is expected to top the US$1 trillion mark. The EU is China’s biggest trading partner, with a full third of what the country produces being shipped there. While nearly half of what the EU imports comes from China, which is also the second biggest market for EU exports.

    - Putzes in da house.

  16. #15
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Hyperloop One team dreams of connecting Europe and China.

    The end goal is a high-speed network pushing freight from China to Europe.

    https://www.engadget.com/2016/06/21/...cow-silk-road/
    Odd objects attract fire. You are odd.

  17. #16
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    Litt info om prosjektet.

    OBOR on the Ground

    EVALUATING CHINA’S “ONE BELT, ONE ROAD” INITIATIVE AT THE PROJECT LEVEL

    https://reconasia.csis.org/analysis/...s/obor-ground/

    Sent fra min E5603 via Tapatalk
    Odd objects attract fire. You are odd.

  18. #17
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    First direct train service from China to the UK arrives in London.

    Train crossed ten countries on its 7,400-mile journey.

    http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk...=facebook-post
    Odd objects attract fire. You are odd.

  19. #18
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    https://www.nrk.no/urix/kinas-gigant...ner-1.13494987

    Og motsatt vei. Første toget tilbake har nå ankommet Kina fra London.
    As you wish.

  20. #19
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    Sv: Kina: Silkeveien. Kina knytter Asia-Afrika og Europa sammen.

    https://www.highways.today/2017/07/2...jing-mongolia/
    Kina har nå åpnet 2768km med motorvei fra i øst Beijing til Urumqi i vest.


    (Den nye veien i rødt og den gamle i sort. Man har kuttet 1300km i distanse med den nye veien)

    Står også et stykke om det i Aftenbladet (betalingsmur, men et pent bilde)
    http://www.aftenbladet.no/utenriks/i...ar-opna-i-Kina
    As you wish.

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