Grunnet siste dagers uroligheter i Makedonia, starter jeg en Fokus-tråd om landet.
Fakta, nyhetsklipp, infographics m.m. Større hendelser får egne tråder.
Facts fra Wikipedia og CIA World Factbook
Forsvar (fra Wikipedia):
Republikken Makedonias forsvarsstyrker er organisert i hæren, med 9760 mann og luftforsvaret, med 1130 mann. En mindre marin styrke, som opererer på innsjøene som også utgjør deler av landets grense, sorterer under hæren og er oppsatt med patruljebåter. Totalt har landet 10890 mann under våpen, i tillegg kommer en reservestyrke på 21000. Den paramilitære politistyrken teller 7600, av disse er rundt 5000 væpnet. Landet har tidligere hatt verneplikt med en tjenestetid på seks måneder, men ordningen ble avsluttet fra oktober 2006. Makedonia skal fra da av ha et forsvar bestående av vervet personell. Republikken Makedonia aspirerer til medlemskap i NATO og er medlem av det NATO-tilknyttede Euro-atlantiske partnerskap. Republikken Makedonias har gitt styrkebidrag til internasjonale operasjoner, inkludert ISAF i Afghanistan og de multinasjonale styrkene i Operation Enduring Freedom i Irak. I 2007 var disse bidragene på henholdsvis 120 mann i ISAF og 33 til Operation Enduring Freedom.
Ledelse (fra Wikipedia):
Head of state:
since May 12, 2009
President of Macedonia
On the day Ivanov officially became president of his country, he sent a letter to the president of the United States Barack Obama in which he underlines Macedonia's aim to join NATO and EU and to find a "mutually acceptable solution" to the "name difference" with neighboring Greece. He also thanked Obama for his words of support at the 2009 Nato Summit. One day after the inauguration, Ivanov together with Prime Minister Gruevski travelled to Brussels to meet with European Union and NATO officials. Ivanov promotes the Macedonian model of a multi-ethnic society and Pax Europaea, a united Europe living in peace and respecting the diversity and identity of the nations of Europe. Ivanov was re-elected as President of the Republic of Macedonia for a second term in April 2014.
CIA World Factbook
CIA World-Leaders - Macedonia: LeadersMacedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the US and over 130 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into an insurgency in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Although Macedonia became an EU candidate in 2005, the country still faces challenges, including fully implementing the Framework Agreement, resolving the outstanding name dispute with Greece, improving relations with Bulgaria, halting democratic backsliding, bolstering independence of the judiciary and media freedom, and stimulating economic growth and development. Macedonia's membership in NATO was blocked by Greece at the Alliance's Summit of Bucharest in 2008.
Macedonia blames Kosovans for deadly Kumanovo clashes
Foto: BBC: Photos show large-scale destruction in the city as a result of the fighting
Macedonia says five Kosovans led the armed group which was involved in deadly clashes with security forces in the northern town of Kumanovo. Eight officers and 14 gunmen were killed in the fighting, Interior ministry spokesman Ivo Kotevski said. Those named were members of the now dismantled Kosovo Liberation Army.
The opposition and the government have accused each other of deliberately destabilising the country.
Nato Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said he was following the situation with "great concern" and urged all sides to "exercise restraint and avoid any further escalation, in the interest of the country and the whole region".
Earlier, the European Commission issued a similar call. Macedonia, which is a candidate for European Union membership, is observing two days of mourning.
Macedonia blames Kosovans for deadly Kumanovo clashes - BBC News
Ekspert om Makedonia-volden: Kan være provokasjon fra myndighetene
** Derfor er det uroligheter i Makedonia nå
** NATO-sjef Jens Stoltenberg er bekymret
Urolighetene skal ha startet da makedonsk politi gikk til aksjon mot det de hevder var væpnede terrorister, som har tatt seg inn i landet. Denne gruppen skal ifølge myndighetene ha tilhengere i Kumanovo, en by med en stor albansk minoritet ved grensen til Kosovo. Målet til den væpnede gruppen skal ifølge regjeringen ha vært å destabilisere landet.
Ekspert om Makedonia-volden: Kan vÃ¦re provokasjon fra myndighetene - Makedonia - VG
Over 20 mennesker drept i kamper i Makedonia
Åtte politifolk og 14 menn, som er beskrevet som «terrorister», er drept i helgens væpnede kamper i byen Kumanovo nord i Makedonia, opplyser innenriksdepartementet.
Anslagsvis 30 prosent av Makedonias befolkning på 2 millioner er etniske albanere. Makedonia var på randen av borgerkrig i 2001 da albansk gerilja gikk til opprør og forsøkte å ta kontroll med albanskbefolkede områder.
Etter seks måneder med væpnede sammenstøt og over 200 drepte underskrev man en fredsavtale forhandlet fram av EU og NATO. Den albanske minoriteten skulle få større rettigheter og representasjon.
Over 20 mennesker drept i kamper i Makedonia - Nyheter, tv og radio fra hele verden - NRK.no
Montenegro Press Review - May 11, 2015
Macedonia proves that regimes can produce violence if they are in danger. The unidentified gunmen fired shots on the military security. Respect for difference leading value of Montenegro’s multiethnic society, DPM Markovic says.
Violance in Macedonia proves that the Balkans are still highly flammable, and entrenched regimes at any time when they feel that they are threatened can produce violence, the Civic Movements URA warned.
The Army of Montenegro's unit has been attacked when two unidentified men fired several shots at a military firing range in Zlatica, in the capital Podgoria, which is located next to several facilities where the weapons are stored. The buildings are abandoned for several years but the military still provides secutiry services.
Montenegro Press Review - May 11, 2015 :: Balkan Insight
Macedonia’s Political Crisis Turns Violent
Macedonia’s wire-tap scandal morphs into street violence A taped recording that Macedonia’s opposition says proves the government covered up the circumstances of the beating death of a man in 2011 sparked violent demonstrations in Skopje this week, the BBC reports.
Some rights groups accused the police of using excessive force, beating up activists, and using tear gas, water cannons, and stun grenades, Balkan Insight writes in a separate report. But Jankuloska said police had reacted after protesters beat them with metal bars and threw stones, bottles, and eggs, the Associated Press reports.
The recording that spurred this week’s events purportedly reveals that the government sought to blame one rogue, off-duty Interior Ministry police officer for the beating death of 22-year-old Martin Neskovski in 2011.
Unemployment in FYR Macedonia reduced from 40% to 27.6%
One of the challenges that countries in Southeast Europe (SEE) are facing is unemployment. The governments in the past two decades have created policies on opening more jobs, however the countries need to join forces in order to improve the situation. This was stated at a two-day regional conference on employment and social inclusion in SEE and Turkey, which was opened Thursday in Skopje. The average unemployment level in Western Balkan countries is more than 20% and employment rates generally are 43%, which is the lowest share anywhere in the world, according to Cihan Sultanoğlu – UN Assistant Secretary General and UNDP Regional Director for Europe.
Minister of Labour and Social Policy Dime Spasov said Macedonia was on the right path with respect to this matter stressing that the unemployment rate had been reduced from close to 40% to 27.6% in the past several years.
Macedonia Slammed For Failing To Liberalize Energy
Macedonia has breached its EU commitments to liberalize its energy market, the Energy Community has said, giving it only two months to rectify this failure.
“Macedonia’s decision to postpone the full opening of the electricity market, thereby prohibiting consumers from choosing their supplier, is another manifestation of the government’s deliberate policy of systematically refusing to accept the country’s obligations under the Energy Community Treaty and, consequently, EU law,” the Director of the Energy Community Secretariat, Janez Kopac, was cited as saying. The criticism comes in the form of a “Reasoned Opinion” that the Energy Community has sent to Macedonia as part of its effort to settle the dispute over this issue, allowing the country two months to rectify its behaviour.
South-East Europe On Edge Of Civilization: Depending Who You Ask – Media (il)literacy (Part III) – The Gradual Strategy
People usually say, “Trust them, without doubt,” when referring to the content of the news on any News channel in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo*, and Macedonia.
Macedonia: Recent riots against the Government (1,000-3,000 people between 5.5. – 7.5. 2015) on the streets of Capitol of Macedonia, city of Skopje is a reflection of the gradual strategy of both sides that having a stable country is bad for them. Both can exist only within organized anarchy where they can blame each other for all wrong things done in the past. Basically, on the ground is the fight for the authority and money (as shown even within recent coup d’etat in Islamic community of Macedonia).
What about Media (il)literacy? Nothing special Good old story of being controlled by the power of money and authority.
Solution: Simple, as it might be. Education based on scientific knowledge of educators who respect others and different ones and within months it will be changed. The [roblem is…where to find them (educators) with mentioned quality. And how to give them that power of teaching? The questions arises, but that is good, because practical answers will come, eventually. Without that, even the worst thing that can happen would be as it was back in 1990, after the dissolution of Yugoslavia. Guess?
South-East Europe On Edge Of Civilization: Depending Who You Ask - Media (il)literacy (Part III) ? The Gradual Strategy - Essay - Eurasia Review
Velskreven analyse fra Stratfor. Omhandler regionen som helhet (se link). Her er kommentarer rettet mot Makedonia spesielt:
The Problems Foreign Powers Find in the Balkans
Officers retaliated with stun grenades and plastic bullets after unrest broke out among 800 migrants waiting at the border to continue their journey to northern Europe
Migrants attack Macedonian police as construction of Greek border fence begins | World news | The Guardian
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